Researched information on inhalation
1. Tyrrell D., et al. Local hyperthermia benefits natural and experimental common colds. 1989, BMJ. 298:1280-3
Study on the effects of local targeted hyperthermia on colds.
The study determined whether inhaling moistened air at 43 degrees gave more benefit to those affected by the flu than inhaling 30 degrees air. 87 randomly selected patients with typical acute flu symptoms (nasal and upper respiratory symptoms) and 84 volunteers aged 18-50 with no previously diagnosed chronic or allergic diseases.
The subjects inhaled from a device with heated moist air. Temperatures of 43 degrees or 30 degrees were used. The end result was that the disease remained mild.
The main results were: Patients recorded their symptoms (general practical examination) and observers registered symptoms in volunteers. Patients treated for 20 minutes at 43 degrees had about half the score for symptoms treated at a temperature of 30 degrees in the following days.
Nasal hyperthermia can shorten the time of the disease of the common cold and also provide immediate relief from the symptoms of the flu.
Hyperthermia=Excessive heating of the body. Hyperthermia is caused by an external factor that raises the body temperature. Hyperthermia is not the same as fever.
2. Conti C., et al. Antiviral effect of hyperthermic treatment in rhinovirus infection. Antimicrob AgentsChemother, 1999;43(4):822-9.
Effect of hyperthermic therapy in rhinovirus infection
Rhinoviruses (HRV) are recognized as the most typical cause of rhinitis. A study has found that local hyperthermal therapy is beneficial for patients with a natural predisposition to colds. The study investigated the effect of short hyperthermic therapy (HT) on HRV replication in HeLa cells.
The study found that 20-minute HT at 45°C effectively inhibits hrv increases by more than 90% when used at certain stages of the virus replication cycle. These results show that respiratory hyperthermia has a beneficial effect in reducing rhinovirus-infected cells.
3. Sebastian L., et al. The effect of local hyperthermia on allergen-induced nasal congestion and mediator release. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1993, 92:850-6.
The effect of local hyperthermia on the nasal congestion caused by allergens and the release of neurotransmitters.
Local hyperthermia reduces the degranulation of feeding cells, the severity of acute lung damage and eases exercise-induced asthma and reduces the symptoms of rhinitis. The study investigated the effect of local hyperthermia on the degranulation of feeding cells and the formation of symptoms in allergic rhinitis to assess its effect and the mode of action in the nose.
Results: Local hyperthermia significantly reduced symptoms and increased nasal respiratory resistance (p <0.05). It also reduced the tendency to vascular leakage (p <0.02), but had no significant effect on the number of sneezings, mucus secretion or the release of tryptase.
Local hyperthermia reduces nasal obstruction and vascular leakage caused by allergens.
4. Desrosiers M. et al. Treatment with hot, humid air reduces the nasal response to allergen challenge. J Allergy Clin Immunol 1997, 99:77-86.
Treatment with hot, humid air reduces the nasal response to the challenge posed by allergens.
The study included 10 subjects who were asymptomatic outside the allergy season. Subjects were exposed to allergens for 1 hour, either at 20 degrees and 30% relative humidity or at 37 degrees and 90% relative humidity. Post-exposure changes were compared with each other.
The study found that a temperature of 37°C and 90% humidity reduces and facilitates an early response to the antigen. Its effects are greatest in the release of histamine, the number of sneezes, the itching of the nose and swelling of the nasal mucosa. The mechanisms behind these effects are not yet known.
5. Foxman et al. Temperature-dependent innate defence against the common cold virus limits viral replication at warm temperature in mouse airway cells. PNAS, 2015, vol 112, no: 3.
Temperature-dependent natural defenses against the common flu virus limit the replication of the virus at a warm temperature in the mouse airways.
Most of the isolates of the human rhinovirus, a common flu virus, replicate more intensely at cool temperatures in the nasal cavity (33-35°C) than at the core body temperature (37°C). To get an idea of the mechanism of temperature-dependent growth, the study compared the transcriptional response of primary epithelial cells in mice infected with rhinovirus at 33°C vs. 37°C.
These findings show that in mouse inhalation cells, the rhinovirus replicates primarily at the temperature of the nasal cavities due to the less effective anti-viral defensive response of partially infected cells at cool temperature.
6. Jing J.C. et al. Scientific REPORTS |7: 8522 | DOI:10.1038/s41598-017-08968-x. Visualization and Detection of Ciliary Beating Pattern and Frequency in the Upper Airway using Phase Resolved Doppler Optical Coherence Tomography 2017.
How mucosiliar cleaning works - cleaning and removing mucus
The respiratory system is exposed daily to viral and bacterial pathogens, particles and gaseous substances with persistent infections and infections of the threatening pathways.
The respiratory system uses several defense mechanisms against inhaled pathogens and particles, including cough, anatomical barriers, aerodynamic changes and immune mechanisms, but the first line of defense of the lungs is the mucous membrane (MCC; Bustamante-Marin & Ostrowski, 2017). The mucous membrane of the respiratory tract consists of a surface layer of the respiratory tract (ASL) and hairy structures called silicones. The ASL has two components - a layer of mucus that sticks to inhaled foreign particles and pathogens, and a low viscosity periciliary layer (PCL), which maintains moisture in the respiratory surfaces. (Bustamante-Marin& Ostrowski, 2017). The ripples constantly carry mucus with foreign particles and/or the pathogen in the direction of the pharynx, where it is either swallowed or coughed away (Jing et al., 2017). Abnormal functioning of the dyes can lead to poor respiratory resistance, which may be associated with various respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cystic fibrosis, sinusitis or chronic respiratory infections (Jing et al., 2017).
7. Vora S.U. et.al. Effect of Steam Inhalation on Mucociliary Activity in Patients of Chronic Pulmonary Disease. Indian J Chest Dis Allied Sci, 1993, 35(1), 31-4 Jan-Mar.
Effect of vapour inhalation on mucous membrane activity in patients with chronic lung disease.
The increased activity of the oscious dyes of the mucous membrane has been observed in several ways. This study sought to investigate the effect of inhaled drug administration. The study was conducted in patients with chronic lung disease and mucous membrane function is known to have deteriorated. The effect of vapour inhalation on the transport time of mucous dyes was studied in these patients. It was found that vapour inhalation significantly improved mucous membrane activity (p <0,001) in both groups receiving either bronchial expanding agents only or bronchial enlargement agents, as well as steroids.
8. Pick HJ., et al. P25 Inspiratory muscle training (IMT) for adults discharged from hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) – a feasibility study. Thorax, 2018, Vol. 73, Issue Suppl 4.
Respiratory muscle training (IMT) for adults discharged from hospital after suffering from pneumonia.
Patients reported having pneumonia; 70% of them reported persistent symptoms and up to 50% decreased daily activity 4 weeks after treatment. Respiratory weakness is one possible reason for the delayed recovery. Respiratory muscle training (IMT) increases respiratory strength and their endurance.
The study assesses the effects of IMT in adults discharged from hospital after pneumonia. Participants received an IMT device (POWERbreath KHP2). The training frequency was twice a day and the load was set at 50% of the maximum force. The training rates were upbeat during weeks 1–3 (10, 20, 30 breaths) and continue thereafter (30 breaths.)
22 participants were recruited; Sixteen were men (72.7%), the average age was 55.2 years. Participants used an IMT device in 72.7% of cases, as instructed. The side effects reported were: chest pain, cough, shortness of breath and dizziness. All adverse reactions were classified as category 1 and did not prevent participants from continuing to practice.
Of the subjects, 99.4% reported that training with an IMT device is beneficial.
Respiratory muscle training appears to be safe, well tolerated and can be recommended for patients who have suffered from pneumonia. Separating the symptoms associated with pneumonia and the side effects associated with the use of the device is challenging for patients recovering from an acute illness.
9. Björkqvist M., et al. Bottle-blowing in Hospital-treated Patients with Community-acquired Pneumonia. J Scand Inf. Dis. 1997, 29/1.
Blowing into a bottle in hospital-treated patients with pneumonia.
The study was conducted to determine whether blowing into a bottle has positive effects in pneumonia patients. The study included 145 adults with pneumonia requiring hospitalization.
Participants were randomized to an early movement encouraged group (group A), sit and breathe 20 deep breaths 10 times a day (group B) or sit and blow bubbles through a plastic tube into a bottle containing 10cm of water, 20 reps 10 times a day (Group C).
Group A patients were hospitalized for an average of 5.3 days, group B for 4.6 days and group C for 3.9 days.
Bottle-blowing treatment was a major factor. Group C discharged from hospital at a significantly faster rate than group A. The number of febrile days was 2.3 days in group A, 1.7 days in group B and 1.6 days in group C.
No significant differences in CRP, PEF, VC,FEV1 or diffusion capability were observed between the groups.
It can therefore be concluded that intensive bottle blowing in acute pneumonia shortens hospitalisation in pneumonia patients. The underlying mechanism is not clear.